Md Asiful Haque

Full Stack Dev | ASP.Net, Laravel, AngularJs, Flutter

.NET Common Interview Questions with Answers – Part 2

.NET interview questions can cover a wide range of topics, and it is important for a candidate to have a solid understanding of the .NET platform and its capabilities in order to be successful in a .NET interview. .NET is a popular platform for building applications on the Windows operating system. As such, there are many interview questions that are commonly asked in .NET interviews. These questions can range from general questions about the .NET platform and its capabilities, to more specific questions about the programming languages and technologies that are used with .NET. Here are few questions with answers on .NET framework:

How does the garbage collector in the .NET framework work and what is its role in memory management?

The garbage collector (GC) is responsible for managing the allocation and release of memory for objects. The GC periodically checks for objects in memory that are no longer being used by the application, and it frees up the memory associated with those objects.

The GC works by maintaining a list of all the objects that are currently being used by the application. When the GC runs, it scans through this list, and for each object, it checks to see if there are any other objects that reference it. If an object is not referenced by any other objects, it is considered to be garbage and its memory is freed up.

The GC uses a technique called “mark and sweep” to identify and collect garbage. The “mark” phase involves finding all of the objects that are still in use by the application and “marking” them as live. The “sweep” phase then involves looking at all objects that were not marked and freeing up the memory associated with them.

The GC runs automatically as needed, so the developer doesn’t need to explicitly call it. It also helps with manual memory management like developer can’t accidentally forget to release objects, resulting in memory leaks.

However, it does come with some performance overhead since it needs to stop the application’s execution to mark, sweep and collect memory and also Garbage collection algorithm could lead to fragmentation of memory, which can lead to performance issue.

How does thread synchronization work in C#, and what methods and types does the framework provide for this?

Thread synchronization is the process of coordinating the actions of multiple threads in order to avoid race conditions and other types of concurrent errors. In C#, the framework provides several methods and types to help with thread synchronization.

One of the most basic methods for synchronizing threads is the lock keyword, which is used to acquire an exclusive lock on a specific object. When a thread executes the code inside a lock block, it acquires a lock on the specified object. Any other thread that attempts to execute code inside the same lock block will be blocked until the first thread releases the lock. This ensures that the code inside the lock block is executed atomically, and it helps to prevent race conditions.

Another important method for synchronizing threads is the Monitor class. The Monitor class provides similar functionality to the lock keyword, but it also provides additional methods for waiting and signaling between threads. For example, the Monitor.Wait method allows a thread to release a lock and wait for a signal from another thread, while the Monitor.Pulse and Monitor.PulseAll methods allow a thread to send a signal to one or more other threads that are waiting on the same lock.

The Interlocked class, Provides atomic operation with integral types, i.e. thread-safe read/modify/write operations on variables shared between multiple threads

Semaphore, SemaphoreSlim and CountdownEvent are synchronization classes that allow to limit the number of threads that can access a shared resource concurrently.

ManualResetEvent and AutoResetEvent are used to signal between threads, allows one or more threads to wait for a signal before proceeding.

Barrier class is used to synchronize the actions of multiple threads and ensure that they all reach a common point before continuing.

How does dependency injection work in the .NET framework, and what libraries are commonly used for this?

Dependency injection (DI) is a design pattern that allows an object to consume other objects through constructor injection, setter injection or method injection, rather than creating the dependencies itself. The goal is to create loosely coupled and maintainable code, where different parts of the codebase can be easily swapped, tested and reused.

In the .NET framework, there are several libraries that can be used to implement dependency injection. Some of the most commonly used libraries are:

  • Microsoft’s built-in dependency injection framework, which is available as part of the ASP.NET Core framework. This framework uses a service provider pattern and allows developers to register services with the container and then request those services at runtime through constructor injection, setter injection or method injection.
  • Autofac: A popular open-source dependency injection framework. It is lightweight, flexible and highly configurable, supports constructor injection, property injection, and method injection.
  • Ninject: is another open-source dependency injection framework, it is lightweight and easy to use.
  • Castle Windsor is a mature Inversion of Control container available for .NET. It supports all the usual features of an IoC container, as well as more advanced features such as auto-registration, lazy loading, and so on.

All of these libraries work in a similar way, allowing developers to define the dependencies for their classes, and then use the DI container to automatically create and manage those dependencies at runtime.

Describe the role of the Common Type System (CTS) in the .NET framework.

The Common Type System (CTS) is a set of rules and guidelines that define the data types and operations that can be used in the .NET framework. The CTS is an important part of the .NET framework, as it provides a consistent, common set of types and operations that are available across all languages that target the .NET framework.

The CTS defines a hierarchy of data types, starting with the most basic types such as integers and floating-point numbers, and extending up to more complex types such as classes and interfaces. It also defines a set of rules for how these types can be used and how they relate to one another.

One of the key roles of the CTS is to provide a common set of data types that can be used across all .NET languages. This allows developers to create and use types in one language and then consume them in another language without any issues.

The CTS also provides a set of basic operations that can be performed on any type, such as casting, comparison, and arithmetic. These operations are guaranteed to work the same way for all types in the CTS, regardless of the language that was used to define them.

The CTS also provides a way to define custom value types and custom reference types, which can be used in the same way as built-in types. This allows developers to create their own types that can be used across all languages and that can take advantage of the full set of features provided by the .NET framework.

Explain the purpose and use of attribute-based programming in C#.

Attribute-based programming, or simply attributes, in C# is a way to annotate classes, methods, properties, and other program elements with additional metadata. Attributes are classes that inherit from System.Attribute base class and decorated with [Attribute] keyword.

Attributes are typically used to provide additional information to the runtime, the compiler, or other tools. They can be used to configure the behavior of classes, methods, properties, and other program elements, or to provide information to other tools that consume the code.

Here are a few examples of how attributes are commonly used in C#:

  1. Configuring framework behavior: Attributes can be used to configure the behavior of framework classes and methods. For example, the [Serializable] attribute can be used to mark a class as serializable, which means that its state can be converted to a byte stream, and the [WebMethod] attribute can be used to mark a method as an XML Web service method.
  2. Conditional compilation: Attributes can be used to control the behavior of the compiler. For example, the [Conditional("DEBUG")] attribute can be used to mark a method that should only be compiled in debug mode.
  3. Custom validation: Attributes can be used to provide custom validation logic. For example, the [Range] attribute can be used to specify a minimum and maximum value for a property, and the [Required] attribute can be used to indicate that a property is required.
  4. Reflection: The reflection API in C# can be used to inspect the attributes of a class, method, or property. This can be used to implement various types of code generators, for example.

What are the different ways of implementing multithreading in C# and what are the pros and cons of each?

  1. Thread class: The System.Threading.Thread class provides a simple way to create and manage threads. You can create a new thread by instantiating a Thread object and passing a ThreadStart delegate to its constructor. This delegate points to the method that will be executed in the new thread. Pros: easy to use. Cons: it may lead to a lot of boilerplate code if you are dealing with a large number of threads.
  2. ThreadPool: The System.Threading.ThreadPool class provides a pool of worker threads that can be used to execute tasks asynchronously. You can use the QueueUserWorkItem method to add a new task to the thread pool, which will be executed by an available worker thread. Pros: Thread pooling can be an efficient way to manage a large number of threads. Cons: it may lead to contention if there are too many tasks and not enough threads.
  3. Task Parallel Library (TPL): The System.Threading.Tasks namespace provides the Task and Parallel classes, which make it easy to write concurrent and parallel code. Tasks are lightweight objects that represent asynchronous operations, and the Parallel class can be used to execute a set of tasks in parallel. Pros: provide an higher abstraction level and more natural API to deal with concurrency, can help you to avoid some pitfalls of Thread and ThreadPool, like Deadlock. Cons: Less control of thread and some complexity added to your code.
  4. Async and Await: Asynchronous programming model allows you to write code that can perform long-running tasks without blocking the execution of the program. Async/await pattern is an high level approach to accomplish that goal. Pros: provide a higher abstraction level and more natural way of dealing with asynchronicity Cons: Less control of thread and some complexity added to your code.

Explain the purpose and use of C# generics and how they differ from C++ templates.

In C#, generics are a feature that allows you to define a class or method that can work with any data type, rather than being hard-coded to a specific data type. This allows for greater code reuse, type safety, and improved performance.

Here’s an example of a simple generic class in C#:

class MyGenericList<T> {
    private T[] items = new T[100];
    public void Add(T item) {
        // Implementation details
    public T Get(int index) {
        // Implementation details

In this example, the MyGenericList class can be used to create a list of items of any type. The type of the items is specified by the type parameter T. You could create a list of integers, for example, like this:

MyGenericList<int> list = new MyGenericList<int>();

C++ templates are similar in that they allow you to define a class or function that can work with any data type. However, there are some key differences between the two.

First of all, in C++ templates the type parameter is deduced at compile-time, while in C# it is specified at runtime. This means that in C++, when a template is instantiated, the compiler creates a specific version of the template for the type passed as a parameter.

Another difference is that C++ templates are expanded at compile-time, which can lead to code bloat if a template is instantiated with multiple types. In contrast, C# generics are implemented using runtime type information, which can lead to increased overhead and slower performance.

Additionally, C++ templates are used for both functions and classes, and C# has specific feature for templates of classes (generics) and templates of methods (delegates)

What is the difference between weak references and strong references in C#, and when would you use one over the other?

In C#, a strong reference is a normal reference to an object that keeps the object alive in memory as long as the reference exists. As long as one or more strong references to an object exist, the garbage collector will not collect the object.

A weak reference, on the other hand, is a reference to an object that does not prevent the garbage collector from collecting the object. A weak reference allows an object to be garbage collected even if there are still active references to it.

The main use case for weak references is in situations where an object is only needed for a short period of time, but its lifetime needs to be independent of the lifetime of the objects that are referencing it. For example, a cache that holds a weak reference to an object that can be garbage collected when memory is low.

Another use case is in situations where you have a circular reference, which prevent the garbage collector from cleaning up the objects, by using weak references in one of the references in the circular references, you can break the circular reference, and let the garbage collector clean up the objects.

In general, if you are not sure whether an object will be needed in the future, or if you need to control the lifetime of an object independently of the lifetime of the objects that reference it, you should consider using a weak reference.

Explain the differences between Task and Thread in C#, and when would you use one over the other?

In C#, a Thread is a low-level construct for creating and managing threads, while a Task is a higher-level construct for creating and managing asynchronous operations.

A Thread represents a single execution thread, and provides methods for starting, stopping, and interacting with the thread. You can use Thread to create new threads, set their priority, and manage their state. When you create a new thread, it begins executing the method you specify.

A Task represents an asynchronous operation that can be started and awaited. A Task can be used to execute a piece of code in the background, and the Task object can be used to track the status and results of the operation. When you create a new task, it begins executing the method you specify on a new thread, but you can also use the Task.Run method to run the task on a thread pool thread instead of creating a new thread.

In general, you would use Thread when you need fine-grained control over the execution of a piece of code, such as when you need to manage the thread’s priority or set the thread’s apartment state. On the other hand, you would use Task when you need to perform an asynchronous operation, such as when you need to perform an I/O-bound operation, or when you need to perform a piece of computation in the background.

It is also worth mentioning that Task is part of the TPL (Task Parallel Library) and provides more functionality than Thread, such as support for continuation, exception handling, and cancellation.

Can you explain the serialization process in .NET and what are the different options available?

Serialization in .NET is the process of converting an object’s state to a format that can be persisted or transmitted over a network. The opposite process is called deserialization, which converts the serialized data back into an object. The .NET Framework provides several options for serializing and deserializing objects, including:

  1. Binary serialization – This is the most efficient method of serialization, as it produces a compact binary representation of the object that can be deserialized very quickly. The BinaryFormatter class is used to perform binary serialization in .NET.
  2. SOAP serialization – This is a legacy serialization format that is based on the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) specification. The SoapFormatter class is used to perform SOAP serialization in .NET.
  3. XML serialization – This method of serialization converts an object’s state to an XML representation. The XmlSerializer class is used to perform XML serialization in .NET. The XML serialization can be done in two ways Data Contract serialization and XML serialization.
  4. JSON serialization – This method of serialization converts an object’s state to a JSON representation. The JsonSerializer class is used to perform JSON serialization in .NET.
  5. Data Contract serialization – This method of serialization is similar to XML serialization, but it uses the Data Contract specification instead of the XML schema. Data contract serialization is more flexible than XML serialization and you can use it to serialize and deserialize types that do not have a default constructor.
  6. Protocol Buffers – This is a high-performance, language- and platform-neutral data serialization format. Google’s Protocol Buffer is the most popular implementation of this format.

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